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Yoga – Wikipedia

Source Text Approx. Date Definition of Yoga Vaisesika sutra c. 4th century BCE “Pleasure and suffering arise as a result of the drawing together of the sense organs, the mind and objects. When that does not happen because the mind is in the self, there is no pleasure or suffering for one who is embodied. That is yoga” (5.2.15-16) Katha Upanishad last centuries BCE “When the five senses, along with the mind, remain still and the intellect is not active, that is known as the highest state. They consider yoga to be firm restraint of the senses. Then one becomes un-distracted for yoga is the arising and the passing away” (6.10-11) Bhagavad Gita c. 2nd century BCE “Be equal minded in both success and failure. Such equanimity is called Yoga” (2.48)

“Yoga is skill in action” (2.50)
“Know that which is called yoga to be separation from contact with suffering” (6.23).

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali c. first centuries CE[note 1] 1.2. yogas chitta vritti nirodhah – “Yoga is the calming down the fluctuations/patterns of mind”
1.3. Then the Seer is established in his own essential and fundamental nature.
1.4. In other states there is assimilation (of the Seer) with the modifications (of the mind). Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra (Sravakabhumi), a Mahayana Buddhist Yogacara work 4th century CE “Yoga is fourfold: faith, aspiration, perseverance and means” (2.152) Kaundinya’s Pancarthabhasya on the Pasupatasutra 4th century CE “In this system, yoga is the union of the self and the Lord” (I.I.43) Yogaśataka a Jain work by Haribhadra Suri 6th century CE “With conviction, the lords of Yogins have in our doctrine defined yoga as the concurrence (sambandhah) of the three [correct knowledge (sajjñana), correct doctrine (saddarsana) and correct conduct (saccaritra)] beginning with correct knowledge, since [thereby arises] conjunction with liberation….In common usage this [term] yoga also [denotes the Self’s] contact with the causes of these [three], due to the common usage of the cause for the effect.” (2, 4). Linga Purana

7th-10th century CE

“By the word ‘yoga’ is meant nirvana, the condition of Shiva.” (I.8.5a) Brahmasutra-bhasya of Adi Shankara c. 8th century CE “It is said in the treatises on yoga: ‘Yoga is the means of perceiving reality’ (atha tattvadarsanabhyupāyo yogah)” (2.1.3) Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, one of the primary authorities in non-dual Kashmir Shaivism 6th-10th century CE “Yoga is said to be the oneness of one entity with another.” (MVUT 4.4–8) Mrgendratantravrtti, of the Shaiva Siddhanta scholar Narayanakantha 6th-10th century CE “To have self-mastery is to be a Yogin. The term Yogin means “one who is necessarily “conjoined with” the manifestation of his nature…the Siva-state (sivatvam)” (MrTaVr yp 2a) Śaradatilaka of Lakshmanadesikendra, a Shakta Tantra work 11th century CE “Yogic experts state that yoga is the oneness of the individual Self (jiva) with the atman. Others understand it to be the ascertainment of Siva and the Self as non-different. The scholars of the Agamas say that it is a Knowledge which is of the nature of Siva’s Power. Other scholars say it is the knowledge of the primordial Self.” (SaTil 25.1–3b) Yogabija, a Hatha yoga work 14th century CE “The union of apana and prana, one’s own rajas and semen, the sun and moon, the individual Self and the supreme Self, and in the same way the union of all dualities, is called yoga. ” (89)

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